A hard material made of silicates and an alkali fused with other substances. It is brittle, transparent or translucent, and considered to be a supercooled liquid rather than a true solid. It solidifies from a molten state, in an amorphous rather than a crystalline structure. Oxides fused within or upon molten glass can produce brilliant colors. In prehistoric times objects were carved from natural glass such as obsidian and rock crystal. The earliest known manufactured glass is from Egypt, c. 2000 B.C. Much was produced by the artisans of the Roman empire. Following the fall of Rome, however, there was very little glass manufactured in Europe until the 10th century, when stained glass appeared. As in ancient times, glassmakers fuse their materials at high temperatures in fireclay containers. Then the molten glass is boiled, skimmed, and cooled several degrees so that it can be ladled or poured into molds and pressed, or blown, or drawn. In its final shape, the glass is annealed to relieve stresses caused by manipulation, then slowly cooled.
Natural earths used to make pigments, especially yellowish tan.
The printing process in which an inked image on a metal or paper plate is transferred to a smooth rubber cylinder and then to the paper.
Also known as mordant gilding, this is attaching gold leaf to a non-absorbent surface which has been coated with a mordant size (an adhesive)-- either a slow-drying type containing linseed oil, or a quick-drying type sometimes called Japan gold size. The leaf must be applied only when the mordant size is no longer wet, but is somewhat sticky or tacky. If the surface is absorbent, it must first be sized with some kind of shellac, varnish, or paint. Oil gilding is generally easier than water gilding. One advantage is that oil gilding can be applied to wood or stone without first coating them with gesso. However, it cannot be burnished (water gilding can be), and it is not so long-lasting (the oil likely to darken or to show some other decay).
Slow drying paint made when pigments are mixed with an oil, linseed oil being most traditional. The oil dries with a hard film, and the brilliance of the colors is protected. Oil paints are usually opaque and traditionally used on canvas.
A stone used for sharpening and honing metal cutting tools.
The practice of rubbing linseed or drying oil on the surface of a cured oil painting to even out the luster.
A form of linear perspective in which all lines (describing straight edges that go from points nearer to points farther) appear to meet at a single point on the horizon.
The quality of being opaque. In painting, the power of a pigment to cover or obscure the surface to which it is applied.
Something that cannot be seen through; the opposite of transparent, although something through which some light passes would be described as translucent. (pr. oh-pake')
A device using a bright lamp, lens and mirrors to project an enlarged image of an opaque image or object onto a flat surface, usually so that its image may be traced. At the end of the 19th century, it replaced a somewhat similar device called a camera lucida, which had earlier replaced another called camera obscura. There are various other sorts of projectors also in use today.
A set of prints made in an unspecified or unlimited number of impressions.
orders of architecture
A system for classifying Classical architecture by the capital of a column. The three original types of orders are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, although the Tuscan, colossal, and Composite orders have also been added.
Example: Bramante's Tempietto, Rome, Italy, 1502, has a Tuscan colonnade.
An irregular shape, or one that might be found in nature, rather than a regular, mechanical shape.
A yellow bronze, an alloy of copper and zinc, resembling gold when new. Its name comes from two Greek words: oros meaning mountain, and chalkos, brass. The Romans made two coins made of orichalcum: the sestertius and the dupondius.
Originating in Japan, the art or process of folding paper into shapes, representing animals, for example. A decorative object made by folding paper. (pr. o-ri-gah'me)
Bronze or brass which has been gold leafed and used in decorating certain styles of furniture, clock-cases, chandeliers, and jewelry. Ormolu is cast and chiseled, then finished with gold leaf.
A unit of dry as well as liquid measurement (in the US). To convert ounces (US dry) into grams, multiply by 28.3495; into pounds, divide by 16. To convert ounces (US fluid) into cubic inches, multiply by 1.80469; into liters, x 0.02957; into pints, x 0.0625; into tablespoons, x 2. Abbreviated oz.
A decoration applied to a ceramic piece after glazing.
Something-- perhaps a layer of paint or some other material, such as wood veneer or gold leaf-- that is laid over or covers another surface. It may also be a transparent sheet like an acetate or cell containing images in some areas, which is placed atop another image to be incorporated into it.
A glazing technique in which additional oxygen is introduced into a kiln while firing.
Any element combined with oxygen. Common rust is iron oxide, one of the most widely used colorants-- making red bricks red for example. Silver's oxide is more often referred to as tarnish. Bronze's is more often referred to as a patina. Pure gold cannot oxidize.
Abbreviation for ounce.