In lost-wax casting, a core pin or refractory spacing block connecting the core placed within a wax model to its surrounding mold. There are often many employed for each work, and may vary in size from thin wire to thick bars of metal, depending on the scale of the model. When the wax is melted from the mold, the chaplets keep the core from shifting. When molten metal is poured in, they are incorporated into it, and when the investment is broken off, they protrude from the surface of the metal. When they are made of the same alloy as the cast, they are difficult to find once they have been filed down. If they fall out when the core is removed, they leave holes which must be filled.
A printing technique that involves carving text in relief upon a wooden block. When inked, the impression is transferred to paper. The oldest known printed works were produced by this method in Japan and China during the 8th and 9th centuries. This method of wood-block printing appeared in Europe in the 14th century and eventually inspired Johannes Gutenberg to create type pieces out of metal.