A frequent diagrammatic structure in Buddhist art. Mandalas represent the cosmos, and are used for meditation.
Example: Taima Mandala, 13th century, Japan
A printing technique that involves carving text in relief upon a wooden block. When inked, the impression is transferred to paper. The oldest known printed works were produced by this method in Japan and China during the 8th and 9th centuries. This method of wood-block printing appeared in Europe in the 14th century and eventually inspired Johannes Gutenberg to create type pieces out of metal.