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Glossary

Word of the Day!

liver of sulfur


A liquid oxidizer used for antiquing copper and silver. Frequently used to create patina effects on artwork and jewelry.


vacuum forming

A method of shaping plastic sheet over a solid relief pattern. The plastic is heated until it is pliable, and when a vacuum is created under the form, the plastic is drawn down onto the pattern like a skin.

value

An element of art that describes the lightness or darkness of a color. Value is an especially important element in works of art when color is absent. This is particularly likely with drawings, woodcuts, lithographs, and photographs. It is also true with most sculpture and architecture.

value scale

A series of spaces filled with the tints and shades of one color, starting with white or the lightest tint on one end, and gradually changing into the darkest shade or black on the other. An example of a value scale can be seen in the article on value.

vanishing point

In linear perspective, the place on the horizon where parallel lines seem to meet.

varnish

A protective transparent finish applied in a liquid state to a surface. One example is glair-- a varnish for tempera paints.

See Also:  acrylic paintoil paintmediumpigmentpolymershellac

vault

A stone roof shaped in a variation of an arch. There are several types of vaults, including the barrel, corbel, cross, and groin vaults.

Example: Durham Cathedral, England, begun c. 1093 is built with pier-vaults.

vehicle

Something that moves things around. In the visual arts, usually the liquid, usually water or oil, that is mixed with pigments to make paints, dyes, and inks.

vellum

Fine parchment, originally calf-skin, used traditionally for manuscript.

veneer

The thin slice of a material-- often of a rare and expensive material-- applied, generally with an adhesive, but also (and sometimes only) with pins, to a surface of a humbler material. Ebony, rosewood, tulipwood and other exotic woods are more often used as veneers in furniture-making than they are used in a solid form. Most wood veneer is sliced rather than sawn, and taken from a log in a continuously spiraling (voluting) cut, and then flattened. Because of concern that such veneer may be more likely to curl away from its placement, some feel that flatly sawn veneer is preferable. Sawn veneer however, because the saw destroys as much wood as the veneer it produces, is much more expensive. Brass, copper, ivory, mother-of-pearl, pewter, and tortoiseshell can also be used and are often combined with such woods. Semi-precious stones such as lapis lazuli and malachite (also used for inlay) are sometimes employed as a veneer, as are the more showy types of calcite alabaster. Veneering is more easily achieved on a flat surface, but thin slices of wood can be bent, for example into the hollow of a molding. Stone cannot be bent, so its veneering on curved or complex forms is particularly difficult. Also see cladding, intarsia, laminate, marquetry, mosaic, and parquet.

Venice turpentine

Canada balsam, an oily resin or balsam obtained from conifers.

See Also:  turpentine

vertex

The highest point; the apex or summit. The point at which the sides of an angle intersect. The point on a triangle or pyramid opposite to and farthest away from its base. A point on a polyhedron common to three or more sides. The plural form can be either vertexes or vertices.

vertical

Going straight up and down; the opposite of horizontal. A vertical sculpture is taller than it is wide. Portraits are conventionally vertical in their orientation, while landscapes are most often horizontal. Any orientation neither vertical nor horizontal is diagonal.

vessel

A hollow container, such as a cup, bowl, or vase, for holding something. Its parts include its foot or base, its walls and opening, its rim or lip, and sometimes: shoulders, neck, lid, handle, etc.

viewfinder

A small window cut in a piece of paper or card that shows what will be in a picture's composition. Or, a window seen through a camera which shows an approximation of a picture the camera would photograph Viewfinders.

viscosity

The relative resistance of a liquid to stirring or movement, and its stickiness.

vitrify

To change materials into glass or a glass-like substance through heat fusion. This is the action of a kiln heating ceramic clay and glazes, for instance. A curious example: lightning striking a metal rod partly buried in sand will cause all the sand within a certain distance from the rod to vitrify.

See Also:  ceramicsfiringglass

void

Containing no matter; empty, negative space.

volatile

Rapidly evaporating (as are many solvents). Or, tending to vary often or widely; inconstant. Or, capable of quickly becoming violent. (pr. vah"leh-tl')

volume

Refers to the space within a form. Thus, in architecture, volume refers to the space within a building.

Deal of the Week
(valid thru Jun 14)
 

Spray Gun Cleaning Set

by Andrew Mack

Specialized black bristle brushes for cleaning

  Spray Gun Cleaning Set

 
List: $11.20
 
Non-Member: $8.40
25% OFF
 
VIP Member: $6.72
40% OFF

Latest Product Reviews

I really like these pencils. I accidentally found a technique that really exemplified the "magic" in them. Rolling the pencil to preserve the point and coloring in a circular motion really brings out the random beauty of the colors in coloring a small petaled flower like a zinnia. I have colored an entire picture with one pencil and gotten raves about it. The biggest drawback I am experiencing is the lack of tutorials to help people understand how to use them. I have seen critiques where the artist did not have a clue how to use them. I have also seen a Russian tutorial that shows a lot of blending techniques that really show some extraordinary effects. I am currently exploring their use for backgrounds. I like the pencils and find them a challenge to explore the "magic."
- Nina in Columbia, SC
I love, love, this product. I have used Gallery Glass Crystal Clear and just love how it looks. Can't wait to start a new project. Amazing product. I can't wait to try some colors now.
- Betty Rich in venice,fl.
After reading that this product wouldn't work on cheap magnetic brass hinges, I tried buying new ones in bronze. After a couple of failures with buying the correct size/type of hinge, I decided to try the rub n buff.For those who asked about using this over cheap hinges that are actually brass color over steel or aluminum (do magnet test), rub n buff does work. I just did it. Soak hinges in mineral spirits or thinner. Spray clean hinges with zinseer123, I used white which I had on hand. Let dry. (I sprayed both sides and let dry over night). Once dry, I applied rub n buff with a rag. Because I used white zinseer123 primer I had to used a toothbrush to apply the rub n buff in the crevices that showed still showed white. I used ebony and autumn gold to create bronze. They look amazing.
- Zita in Boston, MA

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