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Glossary

Word of the Day!

cladding


A decorative, protective, or insulating layer attached to the outside of a building or other structure. Various metals and stones are often used for cladding. Examples include steel, aluminum, limestone, and marble. Also, a technique of construction with wood: a solid shape is formed by bending thin sheets of Masonite or plywood over a wooden framework.


T square

A long, flat ruler that is attached to a short piece that makes it look like a "T." The short piece slides along the edge of a drawing board to position the ruler so parallel lines can be drawn.

T.

Abbreviation for tablespoon.

t.

Abbreviation for teaspoon.

tactile

Of or relating to the sense of touch.

See Also:  texture

tamping

Consolidating a fibrous or granular material such as resin-soaked glass fiber, concrete or damp sand by pressing or packing it into shape in a mold.

tapestry

A textile in which a colorful design or scene is formed by weft threads hand-woven into the warp. Tapestries have usually been displayed as wall hangings. The warp, which is usually linen or wool, is entirely covered by the weft, which is usually wool, silk, or metallic strands. Areas of individual colors are woven as separate blocks, and the gaps between blocks are later sewn together. Tapestries are either woven with the warp stretched on a vertical loom, called high-warp tapestry weaving, or horizontally on a low-warp loom. A cartoon or drawing, perhaps by a famous artist, is copied by the weaver, who faces the underside of the fabric.

tapping

Cutting a thread inside a drilled hole so it will accept a screw or plug in which a corresponding thread has been cut. Tapping is done with a tap drill. The process is used to fill pin holes in a bronze cast with a fine bronze rod.

teaspoon

A unit of measure of both liquid and dry quantities that is equal to a third of a tablespoon. To convert teaspoons to ounces (US, fluid), multiply by 0.16667. Abbreviated t. or tsp.

technique

Any method of working with art materials to create an art object.

See Also:  medium

temper

To bring to a desired consistency, texture, hardness, or other physical condition by or as if by blending, and mixing, or kneading. Also, to harden or strengthen metal or glass by the application of heat, or by heating and cooling. Temper may also be used as a synonym for tempera.

tempera

A paint and process involving an emulsion of oil and water. It was in use before the invention of oil colors. Traditionally it involves an egg emulsion; thus the term egg tempera. The pigments or colors are mixed with an emulsion of egg yolks (removed from their sacs) or of size, rather than oil, and can be thinned and solved with water. Also known as egg tempera and temper. A varnish for tempera paints, called glair may be prepared by mixing egg whites with a little water, then beating them, and applying once the bubbles are gone. Because some of its ingredients are organic, tempera may spoil, and get very smelly. Claims have been made that any one of the following substances are added, they will reverse the growth of bacteria in tempera: benzoate of soda, bath salts, table salt, soap or cleanser such as 409, alcohol or bleach (one capful per gallon of tempera).

temperature

The intensity of heat as measured in degrees Fahrenheit or degrees centigrade, also known as Celsius. The color temperature of light sources is usually measured in units kelvin (K).

See Also:  alloyflammablelost wax castingmetal

template

A pattern used as a guide in making a form with accuracy, as when using a stencil.

tenon saw

A saw with a short, rectangular blade which is supported along the side opposite the cutting edge by a narrow metal grip. It is used for cutting with accuracy through small sections of wood.

tensile strength

The capability of a material to withstand the stress imposed upon it when it is stretched or extended.

See Also:  ductile

tertiary colors

See intermediate colors.

tessera

A small piece of glazed clay used in mosaics. The plural is tesserae.

See Also:  smalto

textile

A cloth, usually made by weaving or knitting fiber or yarn; a fabric.

texture

An element of art which refers to the surface quality or "feel" of an object, its smoothness, roughness, softness, etc. Textures may be actual or simulated. Actual textures can be felt with the fingers, while simulated textures are suggested by the way the artist has painted certain areas of a picture.

thermoplastics

Plastics which soften when they are heated and harden as they cool without changing their basic properties. Acrylics are an example of this type of plastic.

thermosettings

A term which refers to plastics, such as polyester and epoxy resins, which require the presence of heat in a forming process, but which then set hard and cannot be remolded.

See Also:  temperature

thixotropic

The capacity of fluids to decrease in stiffness when stirred. Such fluids are produced as oil painting media and are included in oil primers. They tend to be fast-drying.

three-quarter view

A view of a face which is half-way between a full and a profile view.

throwing

In pottery, throwing means making a pot from a piece of clay on a potter's wheel.

thumbnail

A very small and loose drawing. In digital imaging, a small image usually derived from a larger one, also known as a browse image.

See Also:  image

tie-dye

Designs are created in fabric by first tying it so areas are protected within the gathered fabric. The artist is able to control the design produced by the way the fabric is gathered and by the way the dyes are applied. Directions on the fabric dye should be followed for best results. Some dyes are used with a mordant to set them in the fabric. The label or manufacturers instruction sheet will also list the type of fabric the dye should be used with for the best results.

tile

A slab of hard material such as baked clay or plastic, laid in rows to cover walls, floors, and roofs. It is thin, and either flat, textured or in low-relief. It may either be single or considered as a group. To tile is to cover with (or lay) tiles.

tin

A silvery gray, malleable metal, resistant to corrosion, much used in alloys. It is an essential ingredient in bronze and in pewter. Lead, when used for sculpture, is alloyed with it. It is also used in common solders. Painting on tin is often called tole. When used as a verb, tin refers to coating or plating with tin. Tin's symbol is Sn; atomic number 50; atomic weight 118.69; melting point 231.89°C; specific gravity 7.31; valence 2, 4.

tinsnips

Shears with short blades used to cut through thin sheets of metal.

tint

A color to which white has been added. For example, white added to green makes a lighter green tint. The illustration below diagrams colors of various values. Value changes from pure hues are called tints and shades. On the right, pure hues are marked by dots. The tints made from those hues are above them.

tintype

A photographic process in which the positive image is produced on a thin coated plate of iron. There is actually no tin involved. Tintypes first appeared in 1854.

tissue paper

A type of paper which is very thin and strong, available in many colors. Because of its pliable and translucent qualities, it is especially good for making collages. To adhere it to any of various supports, try using diluted glues or liquid starch.

titanium

An oxide used as a white pigment of great permanence and covering power. Usually extended with other whites to improve its brushing and drying properties.

tole

Decorative painting on tin objects, traditional in several cultures, including American. Toleware is tinware. Although similar painting is also done on wooden, glass, and plastic objects, it is more appropriate to describe such work simply decorative painting. Tole is typically a folk craft, with images derived from pattern books. Most tole is done with oil paints, but some is also done with acrylic paints. There are brushes designed specifically for tole, but round and flat red sable brushes of many types are generally recommended.

See Also:  double loading

tone

A quality of a color, such as its tint, shade, value, or brightness; or to create such a quality in a color. To tone down is to make a color less vivid, harsh, or violent; moderate. To tone up is to make one become brighter or more vigorous. May refer to the general effect in painting of light, color, and shade.

tooth

A degree of surface roughness of texture which is adequate to allow for paints, adhesives, etc. to adhere.

torchon

A tightly rolled paper stump, or stomp, used for drawing with powdered pigment such as charcoal. (pr.tohr-shaw') Also called a tortillion.

toreutics

The art of working metal or other materials by the use of embossing, chasing, engraving, and fine carving, to form minutely detailed reliefs. (pr. teh-roo'ticks)

See Also:  repoussé

torso

A sculpted figure which lack a head, or limbs. The omissions of these body parts can be accidental or intentional.

Example: Nike (Iris), West Pediment of Parthenon, 438-432 B.C.

tortillion

A tightly rolled paper stump, or stomp, used for drawing with powdered pigment such as charcoal. (pr.tohr"tee-yahn') Also called a torchon.

tow

Coarse broken flax or hemp used as a binder in clay or plaster. Used also to smooth clay or ceramic bodies, especially after casting and before they are fired. (pr. toh)

toxic

Poisonous; capable of causing injury or death. Among toxic art materials are the paints flake white (white lead), whose dry pigment should never be handled, and Naples yellow. Whenever a person has been exposed to such hazardous substances immediately get medical assistance. The study of toxicity is called toxicology.

tracing

Making a drawing by referring to an image visible underneath it. Tracing paper is made translucent for this purpose. While artists sometimes use tracing simply as a means of copying another image, and often their own image, they use it best to improve upon images.

transept

The extension of a cruciform church that crosses with the church's main axis.

Example: Chartes Cathedral, Chartes, France, begun c. 1145

transfer paper

Paper coated with a packed pigmented powder. When marks are made with sufficient pressure upon the paper's uncoated side, a likeness of those marks is transferred to the surface placed below the transfer paper with the pigments from its coated side. There are many commercial and hand-made types. To make your own transfer paper rub pencil or crayon marks densely onto an area of paper.

See Also:  carbon paper

transferal

Something that is transferred from one place to another, as an image may be passed from one surface to another by any of several means, including from a printing plate, or from transfer paper. A toy named Silly Putty can do this by being pressed onto dry newspaper inks. Or, the removal of an image from a surface in the act of its being transferred.

translucent

Allowing some light to pass through, but greatly obscuring the image of objects on the other side. A quality that is between transparent and opaque.

transparency

A picture on a transparent surface, such as glass or photographic film, so that the picture can be projected onto a flat white surface. Examples are photographic slides. Also, the quality of being transparent.

transparent

Allowing light to pass through so that objects can be clearly seen on the other side; the opposite of opaque. Window glass, cellophane and watercolors are usually transparent.

See Also:  translucent

triptych

A painting that has three parts, panels, or canvases. This was a common form for an altarpiece during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The outer parts of such triptychs were typically hinged to the central one so that they could be closed over it, and in this case reverse sides were often painted.

triturate

To grind, crush, pound, or rub into a very fine powder; or a triturated substance. Trituration is the process of triturating.

triumphal arch

A gateway, built originally to celebrate Roman marches, with is ornamental in style and monumental in size.

Example: L'Arc du Triumph, Paris, France

trois crayons

A French term for a drawing technique requiring the combination of red, black, and white chalks, usually on tinted paper. (pr. twah kray-ohn)

trompe l'oeil

A French term literally meaning "trick the eye." Sometimes called illusionism, it's a style of painting which gives the appearance of three-dimensional, photographic realism.

turning

A pottery technique by which the base of a pot is trimmed and finished on the potter's wheel. The pot is first allowed to dry to the leather-hard stage.

turpentine

A high quality oil paint thinner and solvent. It is produced by distilling into a volatile pungent oil the resin secreted by any of several types of coniferous trees. There are several grades of turpentine, the best usually called pure gum spirit of turpentine and the lowest called wood turpentine. In normal uses it poses neither hazard of flammability nor of health risk, although some people find it irritates their skin. Most adults find its odor inoffensive, or even pleasant. But for those who find turpentine's odor disagreeable (including many children), a deodorized type is available, which is much more expensive. A much less expensive substitute used by many artists, and for nearly all industrial applications is mineral spirits, which is produced from petroleum.

See Also:  fat over leanVenice turpentine

turps

turpentine

tusche

In serigraphy and lithography, a black liquid used most with brush or pen to paint a design. It should never be called lithographic ink, which is another substance entirely.

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